# Vampire number

In mathematics, a **vampire number** (or **true vampire number**) is a composite natural number *v*, with an even number of digits *n*, that can be factored into two integers *x* and *y* each with *n*/2 digits and not both with trailing zeroes, where *v* contains precisely all the digits from *x* and from *y*, in any order, counting multiplicity. *x* and *y* are called the **fangs**.

For example: 1260 is a vampire number, with 21 and 60 as fangs, since 21 × 60 = 1260. However, 126000 (which can be expressed as 21 × 6000 or 210 × 600) is not, as 21 and 6000 do not have the correct length, and both 210 and 600 have trailing zeroes. Similarly, 1023 (which can be expressed as 31 × 33) is not, as although 1023 contains all the digits of 31 and 33, the list of digits of the factors does not coincide with the list of digits of the original number.

Vampire numbers first appeared in a 1994 post by Clifford A. Pickover to the Usenet group sci.math, and the article he later wrote was published in chapter 30 of his book *Keys to Infinity*.

The vampire numbers are:

1260, 1395, 1435, 1530, 1827, 2187, 6880, 102510, 104260, 105210, 105264, 105750, 108135, 110758, 115672, 116725, 117067, 118440, 120600, 123354, 124483, 125248, 125433, 125460, 125500, … (sequence A014575 in OEIS)

There are many known sequences of infinitely many vampire numbers following a pattern, such as:

1530 = 30×51, 150300 = 300×501, 15003000 = 3000×5001, …

n |
Count of vampire numbers of length n |

4 | 7 |

6 | 148 |

8 | 3228 |

10 | 108454 |

12 | 4390670 |

14 | 208423682 |

**Multiple fang pairs**

A vampire number can have multiple distinct pairs of fangs. The first of infinitely many vampire numbers with 2 pairs of fangs:

125460 = 204 × 615 = 246 × 510

The first with 3 pairs of fangs:

13078260 = 1620 × 8073 = 1863 × 7020 = 2070 × 6318

The first with 4 pairs of fangs:

16758243290880 = 1982736 × 8452080 = 2123856 × 7890480 = 2751840 × 6089832 = 2817360 × 5948208

The first with 5 pairs of fangs:

24959017348650 = 2947050 × 8469153 = 2949705 × 8461530 = 4125870 × 6049395 = 4129587 × 6043950 = 4230765 × 5899410

**Variants**

**Pseudovampire numbers** are similar to vampire numbers, except that the fangs of an *n*-digit pseudovampire number need not be of length *n*/2 digits. Pseudovampire numbers can have an odd number of digits, for example 126 = 6×21.

More generally, you can allow more than two fangs. In this case, vampire numbers are numbers *n* which can be factorized using the digits of *n*. For example, 1395 = 5×9×31. This sequence starts (sequence A020342 in OEIS):

126, 153, 688, 1206, 1255, 1260, 1395, …

A **prime vampire number**, as defined by Carlos Rivera in 2002, is a true vampire number whose fangs are its prime factors. The first few prime vampire numbers are:

117067, 124483, 146137, 371893, 536539

As of 2006 the largest known is the square (94892254795×10^{45418}+1)^{2}, found by Jens K. Andersen in 2002.

**References**

- Pickover, Clifford A. (1995).
*Keys to Infinity*. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-19334-8 - Pickover’s original post describing vampire numbers
- Andersen, Jens K.
*Vampire Numbers* - Rivera, Carlos.
*The Prime-Vampire numbers*

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